The role of ant nests in European ground squirrel’s (Spermophilus citellus) post-reintroduction adaptation in two Bulgarian mountains.

The European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) is a vulnerable species, whose populations are declining all by way of its complete differ in Central and South-Eastern Europe. To an superior extent, its conservation relies upon upon habitat restoration, maintenance and security. In order to boost the conservation standing of the species, reintroductions are an increasing number of utilized.

Therefore, researchers focus their consideration on parts that facilitate these actions and contribute to their success. In addition to the well-known parts like grass peak and exposition, others, related to the underground traits, are more durable to guage.

The presence of completely different digging species may help this evaluation. Here, we present two reintroduced ground squirrel colonies, the place the overwhelming majority of the burrows are located in the underside of anthills, primarily of yellow meadow ant (Lasius flavus).

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This interspecies relationship offers fairly a couple of advantages for the ground squirrel and is usually neutral for the ants. The benefits for the ground squirrel, collectively with diminished energy demand for digging, in addition to further surveillance and hiding places on the market, may enormously enhance the post-reintroduction adaptation course of.

The role of ant nests in European ground squirrel's (Spermophilus citellus) post-reintroduction adaptation in two Bulgarian mountains.
The role of ant nests in European ground squirrel’s (Spermophilus citellus) post-reintroduction adaptation in two Bulgarian mountains.

Comparing affected individual safety custom in Bulgarian, Croatian and American hospitals – preliminary outcomes.

Patient safety custom (PSC) is an integral half of the usual of healthcare. Improving PSC is taken into consideration a priority in many developed nations.

A specialised software program program platform for registration and evaluation of hospital affected individual safety custom has been developed with the help of the Medical University Plovdiv Project №11/2017.The intention of the analysis is to guage the standing of PSC in Bulgarian hospitals and to match it to that in USA and Croatian hospitals.

Methods

The analysis was carried out from June 01 to July 31, 2018 using the web-based Bulgarian Version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Questionnaire (B-HSOPSC). Two hundred and forty-eight medical professionals from fully completely different hospitals in Bulgaria participated in the analysis. In order to quantify the variations of optimistic scores distributions for each of the 42 HSOPSC devices between Bulgarian, Croatian and USA samples, the χ2-test was utilized.

The evaluation hypothesis assumed that there have been no very important variations between the Bulgarian, Croatian and US PSCs.The outcomes revealed 14 very important variations in the optimistic scores between the Bulgarian and Croatian PSCs and 15 between the Bulgarian and the USA PSC, respectively. Bulgarian medical professionals provided a lot much less optimistic responses to 12 devices in distinction with Croatian and USA respondents.

The Bulgarian respondents had been further optimistic in comparability with Croatians on the ideas and communication of medical errors (Items – C1, C4, C5) in addition to on the employment of locum workers (A7) and the frequency of reported errors (D1). Bulgarian medical professionals had been further optimistic in distinction with their USA colleagues on the communication of information at shift handover and all through hospital fashions (F5, F7).

The distribution of optimistic scores on devices: “Staff concern that their errors are saved in their personnel file” (RA16), “Things ‘fall between the cracks’ when transferring victims from one unit to a special” (RF3) and “Shift handovers are problematic for victims in this hospital” (RF11) had been significantly elevated amongst Bulgarian respondents in distinction with Croatian and US respondents.Significant variations of optimistic scores distribution had been found between Bulgarian and USA PSC on one hand and between Bulgarian and Croatian on the other. The analysis reveals that distribution of optimistic responses is likely to be outlined by the cultural, organizational and healthcare system variations.

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